Here we will be discussing the Rome history, Rome is the capital of Italy, the home of the Vatican and the popedom, and was once the center of an ancient empire. It is a cultural and historical focus within Europe. Roman history will let you explore them and discover the Ancient Rome Interesting Facts
Ancient Rome History and Facts
1. The Origins of Rome
In 713 B.C.E, Legend says Rome was founded by Romulus, but the origins predate this, from a time when the settlement was one of many on the Latium Plain. Rome was developed where a salt trade route crossed the river Tiber, the city is said to be built near the seven hills. Traditionally it is believed that the early rulers of Rome were kings.
2. The Roman Republic and Empire
The kings were replaced with a republic which lasted for five centuries and saw Roman supremacy expand across the surrounding Mediterranean. Rome was the navel of this empire, and its rulers became Emperors after the reign of Augustus, who died in 14 C.E. Expansion continued until the Rome ruled the western and southern Europe, North Africa, and some parts of the Middle East. In such a way, Rome became the focal point of a rich and wealthy culture where vast sums were spent on buildings. The city swelled to contain a million people who were dependent on grain imports and aqueducts for water. This period ensured Rome would retell the history for millennia.
Emperor Constantine established two changes which affected Rome in the fourth century. Firstly, he converted to Christianity and started building works dedicated to his new god by changing the form and function of the city and laying the foundations for a second life once the empire vanished. Secondly, he built a new imperial capital in the east, Constantinople, from where Roman rulers would increasingly run just the eastern half of the empire. Indeed, after Constantine no emperor made a permanent home, to Rome, and as the western empire declined in size, so did the city.
3. The Fall of Rome and the Rise of the Popedom
The final collapse of Rome’s western power occurred shortly after a Bishop of Rome, Leo I, was stressing his role as direct heir to Peter. But for a century Rome declined the passing between warring parties including Lombards and Byzantines, the latter trying to reconquer the west and continue the Roman empire.
Then arose the medieval Popedom and a reshaping of western Christianity around the pope in Rome, initiated by Gregory the Great in the sixth century. As Christian rulers come out from across Europe, the power of the pope and the importance of Rome grew, especially for pilgrimages. As the wealth of the popes grew, Rome became the center of a grouping of states, cities, and lands known as the Papal States. Rebuilding was funded by the popes, cardinals and other wealthy church.
4. Decline and Renaissance
The papacy was forced to move to Avignon in 1305. This absence was followed by the religious divisions of the Great disunity, meant that papal control of Rome was regained only in 1420. Tackle by factions, Rome declined, and the fifteenth-century return of the popes was followed by a grand rebuilding program, during which Rome was at the forefront of the Renaissance.
5. The Early Modern Era
During the late seventeenth century, the papal builders began to be curbed, while the cultural focus of Europe moved from Italy to France. Rome pilgrims began to be supplemented by people on the ‘Grand Tour,’ more interested in seeing the remains of ancient Rome than piety. In the late eighteenth century, Napoleon army reached Rome and looted many artworks. In 1808 the city was formally taken over by him and the pope was imprisoned, such arrangements didn’t last long, and the pope was welcomed back in 1814.
6. Capital City
In 1848, Revolution overtook Rome as the pope resisted approving revolutions elsewhere and was forced to flee from his rowdy citizens. The new Roman Republic was declared, but at that same year, it was crushed by French troops. However, revolution remained in the air and the reunification of Italy got succeeded, the new Kingdom of Italy took control of the Papal States and soon it was pressurizing the pope for control of Rome. By 1871, as French troops left the city, and Italian forces had taken Rome, it was declared as the capital of new Italy.
Building followed, designed to turn Rome into capital and in 1921the population rose fast, from roughly 200,000 in 1871 to 660,000. In 1922 Rome became the focus of a new power struggle when Benito Mussolini marched his Blackshirts towards the city and took control of the nation. He signed the Lateran Pact in 1929, bestow on the Vatican the status of an independent state within Rome, but his regime collapsed during the Second World War. Rome gets rid of this great conflict without much damage and led Italy throughout the rest of the twentieth century. The city had received its first directly elected mayor in 1993.
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